13.8 million citizens of the EU 28/EFTA member states aged between 15 and 64 did not live in their home country (country of their citizenship) in 2018 and this figure grew by 45% in comparison with 2008. Growing trends can be observed for residents of the majority of the member states of the EU respectively EFTA; significant increases are however recorded in south-eastern European countries, Poland, Hungary and in the Baltic states.
“The creativity, the spirit and the ability to stand up again and go beyond your own boundaries define the soul of Europe”
Pope Francis, award of the Charlemagne Prize, 6th of May 2016
The share of Romanian citizens with residence outside Romania in the entire population was at 17.3% in 2018, whereas in 2008 this share only amounted to 8.4%. The share of women – just as in all other countries (except Poland) was higher than that of men. This share also clearly grew in the 10-year comparison in the following countries:
Over 80% of EU/EFTA citizens (aged between 25 and 54) live abroad to make their living
Looking at the age group between 25 and 54, to exclude those staying abroad to obtain qualifications, the very high employment rates indicate that employment is a primary reason for staying in another EU respectively EFTA country: across the annual average of 2018 they were at 73.5% for Bulgarian citizens, 74.3% for Romanian citizens, 85.8% for Croatian citizens, 84.6% for Polish citizens, 85.8% for Hungarian citizens, 77.8% for Estonian citizens, 82.1% for Latvian citizens and 84.9% for Lithuanian citizens (81,6% on average for the EU/EFTA citizens).
33% of EU/EFTA citizens living abroad are vocationally or academically qualified
In 2018 one third of persons of economically active age (15 to 64) with residence outside their home country have completed tertiary education (vocational colleges, universities or universities of applied sciences), 40% have completed vocational training, and 26% have no qualifications.
Mobility of EU and EFTA citizens as defined by the freedom of movement of persons, one of the four fundamental freedoms of the European Union, is very high with 22% of EU/EFTA citizens leaving their home country for Germany to live (and work) there, with an additional 20% going to United Kingdom respectively 10% to Spain. 15% of Romanian citizens live in another EU/EFTA member state, with this figure being 11.3% for Croatians respectively 10.6% for Bulgarian citizens.
Table 2: The following nationals (the three most frequent nationalities of EU/EFTA citizens) were living in the EU and EFTA member states as of 1st of January 2018:
Table 3: Citizens with usual residence in another EU/EFTA member state were living in the following EU/EFTA member states as of 1st of January 2018
Source: Database – Eurostat migr_pop9ctz
Note: To represent the mobility of labour, the labour market and demographic data of nationals from an EU/EFTA member state are consolidated and analysed in the database of the European Commission (EUROSTAT database). Individuals analysed herein and aged between 15 and 64 have been living (and working) for at least 12 months in another EU/EFTA member state.